2002-2003 Science Planning Summary

Biology & Medicine

Dr. Polly Penhale
Program Manager

BO-019-O

NSF/OPP 01-25611
Station: McMurdo Station
RPSC POC: Karla College
Research Site(s): McMurdo, temporary field camps, Taylor, Wright and Victoria Valleys

Yeasts in the Antarctic Dry Valleys: Biological role, distribution, and evolution
Dr. Laurie B. Connell
The University of Maine
School of Marine Sciences
laurie.connell@umit.maine.edu
Dr. Russell Rodriguea
University of Washington

Deploying Team Members: Laurie B Connell . Scott D Craig . Regina S Redman . Russell J Rodriguez . Barbara E Shulz
Research Objectives: The soil community of the antarctic polar desert comprises few endemic species of bacteria, fungi, and invertebrates. Both filamentous and single-cell fungi have been isolated from a diversity of antarctic soil types, but only yeasts appear to be endemic to the polar desert soils. Although their ecological role in antarctic soils is undefined, yeasts may be the principal taxa synthesizing the sterols required by soil invertebrates. In addition, yeasts may be involved in accumulating and mobilizing growth-limiting nutrients such as phosphorus into the polar desert food web. Although yeasts have been well described in agricultural and industrial systems, little is known about their ecological role.

This multidisciplinary, collaborative research will characterize the role(s) soil yeasts play in the McMurdo Dry Valley ecosystem in order to better understand polar deserts and other extreme environments, as well as provide a foundation for incorporating yeasts into biogeochemical models of temperate environments. Soil microbiota mediate most processes such as decomposition, soil respiration, uptake and fixation of micro- and macronutrients, and detoxification of heavy metals and serve as major global carbon sinks. The complexity of soil communities in temperate regions poses difficulties in studying the relationships between biotic and abiotic parameters, and the factors controlling populations of soil microbiota remain poorly understood. The extreme climate and relatively simple community structure of the continental antarctic desert lend themselves to such studies.

Researchers will correlate the abundance and distribution of yeasts in polar desert soils with physical and chemical soil properties. Several physiological parameters will be explored in vitro to develop a basis for understanding the functional role(s) these organisms might play. Sterols synthesized by McMurdo Dry Valley soil yeasts, as well as their ability to survive multiple freeze-thaw cycles, will be characterized. The capacity of indigenous antarctic yeasts to use, compete for, and store phosphorus will be ascertained. The evolution of dry valley yeasts will be addressed by determining intra- and intervalley relatedness patterns based on DNA sequence.

Both soil samples and extracted DNA will be shared with other interested laboratories. Moreover, students from middle school (Biolab Inc.) through college (University of Maine) will be given the opportunity to collaborate on this project, as well as to develop their own projects.


Field Season Overview:
Working along 10-kilometer transects in the Taylor valley, team members will collect soil samples from the valley floor and at increasing elevations along the valley sides. A temporary field camp will be established at New Harbor.